Co2 Laser beam is an intense, monochromatic, concentrated, and coherent beam of light. Co2 laser has a wavelength of output is 0.6μm and 10.6μm and the power output of Co2 laser is about 10kW.
It can be focused on a very small area. And hence the laser generates very high intensity in the area of focus. Because of this feature of characteristics, Co2 laser finds widespread application in these fields:
Applications of co2 Laser
- Co2 laser in the medical field.
- Industrial applications of co2 laser.
- LIDAR (ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS).
- Co2 lasers used for fabricating.
- Co2 laser used in spectroscopy.
co2 Laser in the Medical Field.
Co2 laser is used in many skin care problems. Carbon dioxide laser is used in many treatments like otolaryngology, head and neck surgery. In gynecologic surgery for the treatment of intraepithelial neoplasms, condylomata acuminata, and other lesions.
Carbon dioxide laser surgery
Co2 Lasers have brought a revolution in the field of medicine especially in surgery. Carbon dioxide lasers have become useful in surgical procedures because water is capable of absorbing the wavelength of a CO2 laser.
The output wavelength of the co2 laser is 10.6μm remains the best surgical laser for the soft tissue where both cutting and hemostasis are achieved photo-thermally. CO2 lasers are the best suited for soft tissue procedures in human and animal specialties, as compared to other laser wavelengths.
Advantages include less bleeding, shorter surgery time, less risk of infection, and less post-op swelling. Applications include gynecology, dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and many others.
The CO2 laser has become the workhorse for intraoral soft tissue surgery. The emitted wavelength of 10,600 nm has ideal absorption by soft tissue because soft tissue is composed of 90% water, and CO2 has excellent absorption in water. Cellular rupture occurs from the photothermal effect when intracellular water absorbs the energy from the CO2 laser.
Cellular vaporization is the basis for the CO2 laser to function as a surgical tool.3 The wavelength allows for absorption into a soft tissue, very quickly generating heat conducted into the surrounding tissue, and creates a very narrow zone of thermal necrosis approximately 500 µ or less.
co2 laser in dermatology
A CO2 laser is a carbon dioxide laser that is used for skin resurfacing. Thin layers of skin are vaporized using a high-energy beam of laser light. This creates a “controlled injury” to the skin: as the skin heals, it produces collagen as a natural part of the healing process, which restores your skin’s elasticity.
CO2 lasers may be used to treat certain skin conditions such as hirsuties papillaris genitalis by removing bumps or podules. CO2 lasers can be used to remove vocal fold lesions, such as vocal fold cysts. Researchers in Israel are experimenting with using CO2 lasers to weld human tissue, as an alternative to traditional sutures. Co2 laser is also used for burn scar treatment.
Industrial Applications of co2 Laser.
A laser beam has the ability to concentrate large power on a small area. This property of laser is used in a number of industrial applications like welding, cutting, making holes, etc. These are the following application of laser use in industries.
- Laser Welding.
- Laser cutting.
Co2 Laser Welding
In welding, a very high temperature is needed to melt and then join the material. In the process of welding, the material is added to join two components. For welding, laser beams must have high power rather than high peak power. Carbon dioxide laser and neodymium – YAG laser are most commonly used in welding. However, laser power should not be high to evaporate the material.
Lasers are used in the manufacturing of aircraft and automobiles. Laser welding is easily formed between two dissimilar metals. Hence, a Thermocouple can be easily welded to a substrate without damaging and neighboring material.
Laser welding is also used effectively in electronics and microelectronics. Where precise welding of very thin wire and two thin films is required. Since laser welding is done in a very small interval of time. Therefore welding with laser is performed in a region in the neighborhood of the heat-sensitive area without damaging or affecting the element.
For example, welding of part of a transistor is performed by a laser. Welding of components of inaccessible regions like inside a glass envelope can be done using lasers. The main advantage of laser welding over gas or arc welding is that the purity of the material welded is not altered or affected in the case of laser welding.
Co2 Laser cutting
The removal of a part of material along the cut from a substance is known as the cutting process. To cut metal or nonmetal like stainless steel, titanium, ceramics, glass, plastic, wood, paper, etc.
The repetition frequency of the pulse of a laser and the motion of the laser across the substance or material are adjusted in such a way that a series of overlapping holes are produced. Carbon dioxide laser is commonly used in the cutting process due to its output power.
The efficiency of laser cutting can be increased by making use of a gas Jet coaxial with the laser.
In cutting hard materials like stainless steel, carbon steel, Titanium, etc. A highly reactive gas like oxygen is used along with a laser beam. When a laser beam heats the material, it interacts with oxygen and gets burnt. The Oxygen gas also helps in expelling the molten material.
In cutting less hard material like good, plastic, paper, etc. Inert gases like nitrogen and organ are used along with laser beams. This technique of cutting is very efficient for material absorbing most radiation of laser wavelength. The gas that you used helps in expelling the molten material.
Laser cutting is used in the aircraft and automobile industries, the diamond industry, and the textile industry for cutting clothes.
LIDAR (ENVIRONMENTAL MEASUREMENTS)
Radar uses radio waves for detecting and arranging objects in space. On the same principle of lasers are used for monitoring the environment. The technique is known as LIDAR ( acronym of Light Detection and Ranging).
LIDAR is a ‘remote sensing technique’ (used to identifying, observing and measuring inaccessible objects without coming in direct contact with them). In this process, detection, and measurement of radiation of different wavelengths reflected or emitted from inaccessible objects takes place.
LIDAR Technique is used to study the nature of aerosols present in the atmosphere, atmospheric structure, and dynamics, Clouds, Meteorological parameters like temperature, and humidity, and wind speed.
The laser beam is sent into the atmosphere and the scattered beam of light from the atmosphere is detected. The intensity of backscattered light indicates the aerosol number density and sizes. On the other hand, time delay indicates the distance between lidar and scattering particles. Lidar is also used to study the concentrations and sizes of various particles in the atmosphere.
This study helps us to determine the pollution level in the atmosphere. The visibility of the atmosphere, diffusion of particulate materials ( or gases released at a point ) in the atmosphere, presence of clouds, fog, etc. Can also be studied using LIDAR.