## Digital signal and Analog signal |Difference between Digital and Analog signal | Advantages and Disadvantages

In this article we are going to study Digital signal and Analog signal along with example of digital and analog signal also the difference between digital and analog signal. Electronic signals are of two types i.e. Digital signal and Analog signal. Analog signal Definition Analog signal is a continuous time varying current or voltage signal … Read more

## Difference between Avalanche breakdown and Zener breakdown

We have studied that as the voltage across reverse bias PN junction increase to certain value, called breakdown voltage, high reverse current is caused by which may damage the junction diode. Before studying the difference between Avalanche breakdown and Zener breakdown we have to study two mechanism by which breakdown can occur, when PN junction … Read more

## Proof of Thevenin’s Theorem|Definition|Circuit diagram for Thevenin’s Theorem|Application

Thevenin’s theorem is an important tool to avoid lengthy and difficult calculation in network analysis. Thevenin’s Theorem Definition According to Thevenin’s theorem,” any two-terminal linear network can be replaced by an equivalent circuit consisting of a voltage source (V) in series with the impedance (Z).“ The value of V is one which is presented to … Read more

## How to use zener diode as voltage regulator

Why zener diode as voltage regulator Because a Zener diode is used as a voltage stabiliser or voltage regulator to provides a constant voltage from a source whose voltage may fluctuate over a wide range. The circuit diagram of a Zener diode as a voltage stabiliser is shown in Fig. This is the “circuit diagram … Read more

## Positive and negative feedback amplifier

When a part of output signal is fed back to the input of circuit through a suitable network, the process is called feedback. Feedback is of two types Positive and Negative feedback in amplifier Negative feedback in amplifier In negative feedback, the feedback signal is opposite in phase to the input signal and this lead … Read more

## Hartley oscillator I Hartley Oscillator Working I Hartley Oscillator Derivation

Hartley oscillator Definition Fig. 4 shows the circuit diagram of a Hartley oscillator using a transistor in C.E. configuration. In hartley oscillator, tank circuit consists of L1, L2 and C1. Stabilized 1self-bias to the amplifier is provided by R1, R2, Re and Ce. Radio frequency choke is used to provide load for the collector and … Read more

## Tuned Collector Oscillator

Construction of tuned collector oscillator It consists of a tank circuit or LC tuned circuit connected to the Collector of the transistor. Hence, the name of this oscillator is tuned collector oscillator. The stabilized self bias to the amplifier is provided by the arrangement consisting of R1 , R2 , R3 and Ce. The coil … Read more

## Operational Amplifier

What is Operational Amplifier An operational amplifier (OP-AMP) is a very high gain differential Amplifier with high input impedance and low input impedance. It is direct coupled and uses negative feedback. It is called operational amplifier because it can perform mathematical operation like subtraction, addition, differentiation and integration etc. the symbolic representation of Operational amplifier … Read more

## Colpitts Oscillator Derivation

Fig. 6 Shows the circuit diagram of Colpitts oscillator. What is Colpitts Oscillator? In this oscillator, tank circuit consists of C1,C2, and L. Stabilized self-bias to the amplifier is provided by R1 R2 Re and Ce. Radio frequency (RF) choke is used to permit an easy flow of d.c., whereas a capacitor Cc permits a.c. … Read more

## RC phase shift oscillator I Working of phase shift oscillator I Phase shift oscillator

Fig. 8 shows the circuit diagram of RC phase shift oscillator using transistor in CE configuration. In this circuit, stabilized self-bias to the amplifier is provided by R1, R2, R3, R4 and Ce. Phase shift network (R-C network) provides a phase shift of 180o essential for positive feedback. The feedback signal is coupled through R‘ … Read more